Acrylate Butadiene Rubber



Surface loss of a material due to frictional forces. 


Abrasion Resistance

The ability to resist mechanical wear. - The resistance of a material to loss of surface particles due to friction. 



The act or process of one substance absorbing another substances liquid, gas or vapor into its interior.


Accelerated aging

A method in which an attempt is made to produce and measure the effects of natural aging in a shorter period. 


Accelerated Life Test

Test conditions designed to reproduce, in a shortened time period, the deterioration a product will obtain in its normal conditions.



A compounding material used in small amounts with a vulcanizing agent to increase the speed of vulcanization. A chemical which speeds up the vulcanization of an elastomer.



A concept of exactness. When applied to a test method, it denotes the extent to which bias is absent; when applied to a measured value, it denotes the extent to which both bias and random error are absent.


Acid Resistant

Withstands the action of acids.



Defect in which the rubber adjacent to the mold parting line shrinks below the level of the molded product, often leaving the parting line ragged and torn. 



Compounding material used in small proportions to increase the effectiveness of an accelerator.


Actual Size

The precise size of an o-ring or seal in decimal dimensions, inches or millimeters, including tolerances.



The tendency of a material to cling to a contact surface. The state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which may consist of molecular forces or interlocking action, or both. 



Clinging or sticking of two surfaces.


Adhesion Failure

The separation of two materials at the surface interface rather than within one of the materials itself.   



Part of a cement system applied over prepared surfaces for bonding them to rubber


Adhesive force

The adhesive force in accordance with this standard is the maximum force which arises when the elastomer is peeled off from the rigid plate of a standard test body at an angle of 90 °C 



The surface retention of matter by other matter.



Clusters of particles of compounding materials contained in a continuous rubber phase.



 (1) The irreversible change of material properties after environmental exposure for an interval of time; (2) Exposing materials to an environment for an interval of time. 


Air Checks

Surface markings resulting from the trapping of air between the material being cured and the mold surface.


Air Curing

The vulcanization of a rubber product in air as distinguished from vulcanizing in a press or steam vulcanizer. 


Air trap

Surface markings or depressions due to trapping air voids in body or part due to entrapped gas between the materials being cured and the mold or press surface. 



A unique composition of two or more polymers that has one or more of the polymers treated or processed in a special way to confer enhanced performance characteristics on the resulting material.


Alpha particle

A positively charged particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons.



Materials with no definite arrangement of atoms.



A unit of length, an angstrom is one ten thousandth of a micron (10-4 µm) or 100,000,000 Ã =1 cm.



An etch process that exhibits little or no undercutting.



A high temperature processing step, designed to minimize stress in the crystal structure of the wafer.



A substance added to field latex to retard bacterial action which would otherwise cause rapid coagulation of the latex.



A compounding material used to retard deterioration caused by oxidation, ozone, light and combinations of these.


Anti-Extrusion Ring or Device

A washer like device of a relatively hard material placed in the gland between the o-ring and groove side wall also called a back up ring.


Anti-extrusion ring

A thin ring installed on the low pressure side of a seal to prevent elastomer extrusion into the clearance gap.


Antiflexcracking agent

A compounding material used to retard cracking caused by cyclic deformations.



Compounding material used to retard deterioration caused by oxidation.


Antistatic agent

A material which reduces the tendency for accumulation of electric charge on the surface of an article.



Compounding material used to retard deterioration caused by ozone.



Referred to here as a part of Reliability Engineering. Synonymous with the term Reliability Apportionment, which is the assignment of reliability goals from system to subsystem in such a way that the whole system will have the required reliability.


Attack strength

The attack strength S in mg of the sheet of test emery paper is the loss in mass of a defined test body from the control elastomer that is moved over this sheet under defined test conditions



A pressure vessel into which materials or articles can be placed and exposed to steam under pressure. It is commonly used for vulcanization.


Aromatic oil

A hydrocarbon process oil containing at least 35%, by mass, of aromatic hydrocarbons.



The residue from incineration of a material under specified conditions.



The process of removing photoresist with oxygen plasma.


Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD)

A method for depositing layers at atmospheric pressure.



A reduction in intensity of energy traveling through a medium or space.


Axial Seal

An o-ring that seals on a plane perpendicular to its axis.


Axial Squeeze

Compression on the top and bottom of the o-rings surface.


Back-Up Ring

A washer like device of a relatively hard material placed in the gland between the o-ring and groove side wall, also called a back up ring.



Secondary post-curing operation designed to remove residual volatile materials.


Beta particle

An electron or positron emitted from a nucleus.



Brom Isobutene Isoprene Rubber


Bipolar transistor

A transistor (consisting of an emitter, base and collector) whose action depends on the injection of minority carriers from the base by the collector.



A portion of a rubber compound of suitable volume to fill the cavity of a mold.



The exuding of a liquid compounding material from the surface of a vulcanized or unvulcanized rubber.



Deformity on the surface of a molded product. 



A cavity within the lining material, between the lining materials layers, or between the lining and substrate.



A liquid or solid material that has migrated to the surface of a rubber, thereby changing appearance. Sometimes confused with surface dust. 


Blowing agent

A compounding material used to produce gas by chemical or physical action, or both, in the manufacture of hollow or cellular articles.



The union of materials by use of adhesives, usually used in related parts vulcanized after attaching. 


Borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG)

A compound of boron, phosphorus, silicon and oxygen.


Bound monomer

Monomer that is combined or reacted with itself or other types of monomers in a polymerization reaction to form a polymer.


Breakaway friction

The force required to overcome friction to start a body in motion over a surface.


Brittle point

The temperature at which elastomers break when subjected to an impact.



Tendency to crack upon deformation.


Bulk modulus of elasticity

Also known as compression modulus, the ratio of compressive force applied to a surface per unit surface area to the change in volume of the substance per unit volume.


Bumping, molding process

The application, release, and reapplication of pressure prior to the start of vulcanization to vent entrapped gases, thereby facilitating complete filling of the mold.



A general term for the copolymer butadiene and acrylonitrile also referred to as NBR or Nitrile.


Buna S

A general term for the copolymers of butadiene and styrene. 


Butt joint

A joint made in a rubber part before or after vulcanization by placing the two pieces to be joined edge-to-edge.


Butyl rubber

Isobutene Isoprene rubber (IIR), synthetic rubber, soft rubber, chlorobutyl and bromobutyl rubber as variants containing halogens with modified properties, high chemical resistance and high resistance to permeation, resistant to ozone and weathering 



A machine with two or more parallel, counter rotating rolls with a controllable, roll-to-roll spacing, rotating at selected surface speeds and controlled temperatures, used for sheeting, laminating, skim coating (topping) and friction coating, to a controlled thickness and/or surface condition. A machine equipped with two or more heavy, internally heated or cooled rolls used for the continuous sheeting or "plying up" of rubber compounds.



A discrete device which stores electrical charge on two conductors separated by a dielectric.


Carbon black

Elemental carbon in finely divided form used to reinforce elastomeric compounds. 



A chemical in small quantities which accelerates a chemical reaction without itself necessarily becoming part of the final product. 


Cellular Rubber

Rubber products which contain cells or small hollow receptacles. The cells may either be open or interconnecting or closed and not interconnecting. 



The formation of a powdery residue on the surface of a rubber, commonly resulting from surface degradation.


Chamber clean

Typically, a gas or plasma cleaning of the chamber to prevent the buildup of polymer or contamination on the chamber walls.


Characteristics Matrix

An analytical technique for displaying the relationship between process parameters and manufacturing stations. 



The short, shallow cracks on the surface of a rubber product, resulting from damaging action by environmental conditions. 


Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

A method for depositing some of the layers which function as dielectrics, conductors or semiconductors. A chemical containing atoms of the material to be deposited reacts with another chemical, liberating the desired material, which deposits on the wafer while by-products of the reaction are removed from the reaction chamber.



A chemical adsorption process in which weak chemical bonds are formed between gas or liquid molecules and a solid surface.



Die or device, one of the individual integrated circuits or discrete devices on a wafer.



Chloro Isobutene Isoprene Rubber (CIIR)



The abbreviation for cloth inserted, indicating a sheet of rubber containing one or more plies of fabric covered with rubber. 



A compounding ingredient used in small amounts to increase the cross-linking efficiency of certain no sulfur vulcanizing systems or to modify the properties given by such systems.


Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

Average material expansion per one degree change in temperature, expressed as a fraction of the initial dimension.


Coefficient of friction

The force in the direction of motion required to move one surface with respect to another, divided by the force normal to the two surfaces.


Cohesive failure

A rupture occurring entirely within any single uniform layer of the assembly.


Cold Flow

Continued deformation under stress. 


Cold Flexibility

 O-Ring flexibility (resistance to cracking and breaking) at low temperatures.


Cold Resistant

The ability of an o-ring to function at low temperatures.


Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)

N- and P-channel MOS transistors on the same chip.



One of the two or more monomer species that polymerize to form a copolymer.



A mixture of an elastomer and other ingredients to produce a rubber like material.


Compression Moldin

Thermoset molding technique in which the uncured rubber compound is put in a heated open mold cavity and closed under pressure. The material then flows completely filling the cavity.


Compression set

The residual deformation of a material after removal of the compressive stress. 


Composite seal

A seal composed of two or more dissimilar materials.


Conditioning (environmental)

The storage of a rubber, under specified conditions (time, temperature, humidity) prior to testing.



To conduct or transmit heat or electricity. 


Contact adhesive

Glue, used for the application of pre-vulcanized rubber material


Contact stain

Discoloration of a product by another material or by a rubber article in the area directly touching it.



A polymer consisting of two different monomers chemically combined. 



Chloroprene Rubber 


Crack(s), atmospheric

Fissure(s) originating in the surface of a vulcanized n rubber or product as a result of natural weathering.


Crack(s), flex

Fissure(s) originating in the surface of a vulcanized rubber, resulting from cyclic deformation (usually bending).


Crack(s), ozone

Fissure(s) originating in the surface of a vulcanized rubber, caused by exposure to an ozone-containing environment; the fissure(s) are perpendicular to the direction of strain.



A surface effect on rubber articles characterized by many minute cracks. 



The deformation, in either cured or uncured rubber under stress, which occurs with lapse of time after the immediate deformation. 


Crystallization, polymer

Arrangement of previously disordered polymer segments of repeating patterns into geometric symmetry.



Chemical bond bridging one polymer chain to another.


Cross-linking agent

Compounding material that produces cross-linking in rubber.


Cross Section

An O-ring as viewed if cut at right angles to the axis showing internal structure. 



Chloro Sulfonated Polyethylene



The act of vulcanization. See Vulcanization. 



The act of vulcanization; a description of a definite time and temperature of vulcanization.



The distance between cuts or parallel faces of articles produced by repetitive slicing or cutting of long pre-shaped rods or tubes such as lathe cut washers. 


Decibel (dB)

An expression of the ratio of two values of power or voltage in logarithmic terms.



Any of various processes used to remove the waste edge from a molded rubber part.



The mass-per-unit volume of a material. 



Process in which layers are formed as the result of a chemical reaction in which the desired layer material is formed and coats the wafer surface.


Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA)

An analytical technique used by a design responsible engineer/team as a means to assure, to the extent possible, that potential failure modes and their associated causes/mechanisms have been considered and addressed.


Design for Manufacturability and Assembly

A simultaneous engineering process designed to optimize the relationship between design function, manufacturability; and ease of assembly. 


Design Information Checklist

A mistake proofing checklist designed to assure that all important items are considered in establishing design requirements. 


Design Reviews

A proactive process to prevent problems and misunderstandings. 


Design Validation

Testing to ensure that product conforms to defined user needs and/or requirements. Design validation follows successful design verification and is normally performed on the final product under defined operating conditions. Multiple validations may be performed if there are different intended uses. 


Design Verification

Testing to ensure that all design outputs meet design input requirements. 



Compounding material used to irreversibly absorb moisture present (in a rubber mix) particularly for the purpose of minimizing risk of porosity during vulcanization.



Chemical used to remove areas defined in the masking and exposure step of wafer fabrication.


Diametral Clearance Gap

The difference in diameters between two mating surfaces.


Differential Pressure

The difference in the amount of force being exerted on the high pressure side of a seal relative to the low pressure side


Dielectric strength

The measure of a product's ability to resist passage of a disruptive discharge produced by an electric stress; the voltage that an insulating material can withstand before breakdown occurs, 


Die swell

Difference between the dimensions of the cross section of an extrudate and the corresponding dimensions of the die orifice by which the extrudate is formed.



A material that conducts no current when it has voltage across it.


Diene polymer

A polymer formed from one or more monomer species, at least one of which is a diolefin.



The spontaneous mixing of one substance with another when in contact with, or separated by, a permeable membrane or microporous barrier.



A molecule with positive and negative charge centers.


Dispersing agent (latex)

A surface-active substance used to facilitate the suspension of solid compounding materials in a liquid medium and to stabilize the dispersion thereby produced.


Dispersion (the act of)

Application of shearing forces to distribute one or more compounding materials uniformly throughout the mass of a continuum material.



An element that alters the conductivity of a semiconductor by contributing either a hole or electron to the conduction process. For silicon, the dopants are found in Groups III and V of the periodic table.



The introduction of impurity atoms (dopants) into the crystal lattice of a semiconductor.



Etching a process resulting in the selective removal of material, achieved by the use of gas or plasma.



The growth of silicon dioxide using oxygen and hydrogen, which forms water vapor at process temperatures, rather than using water vapor directly.



A compact, firm, heavy, plain weave fabric made from cotton or synthetic fibers, or a combination of both. Duck is also known as canvas, army duck, belt duck harvester duck, hose duck and shoe duck. 


Dumbbell specimen

A flat specimen having a narrow, straight central portion of essentially uniform cross section.


Durometer hardness

An arbitrary numerical value that measures the resistance to indentation of the blunt indenter point of the durometer. Shore hardness, Shore A for soft rubber, Shore D for Ebonite/hard rubber


Dynamic random access memory (DRAM)

Memory device for the storage of digital information. The information is stored in a volatile state.


Dynamic Seal

A seal used in an environment that subjects it to movement.


Elastic limit

The greatest stress that a material is capable of sustaining without any permanent strain remaining upon complete release of the stress.



The tendency of a material to return to its original shape after deformation.



A general term used to describe both natural and synthetic polymers possessing the resilience to return to its original shape after deformation.



A material that has a tendency to attract electrons to itself.



Percentage increase in original length of a specimen produced by a tensile force applied to the specimen.


Emulsifying agent(latex)

A surface-active substance used to facilitate the dispersion of an immiscible liquid compounding material in another liquid and to stabilize the emulsion thereby produced.



(Greek for arranged upon) the growth of a single-crystal semiconductor film upon a single-crystal substrate.


Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM)

Device that allows stored information to be erased; erasing is typically accomplished with ultraviolet light. Esters a compound formed by the elimination of water and the bonding of an alcohol and an organic acid.



 a process for removing material in a specified area through a wet or dry chemical reaction or by physical removal, such as a sputter etch.



A process step that uses heat to change a material (metal or metal alloy) from its solid state to a gaseous state with a result of the source being deposited on wafers. Both electron beam and filament evaporation are common in semiconductor fabrication.


Expanded Rubber

Cellular rubber having closed cells made from a solid rubber compound. 



Method of defining patterns by the interaction of light or other form of energy with photoresist that is sensitive to the energy source.



An organic material used to augment the polymer in a compound.



A device for determining elongation of a specimen as it is strained.



The material that issues from an extruder.



Machine designed to force a rubber or rubber mix through an orifice, which is often shaped to the geometry of the desired product. machine for continuous forming of rubber by forcing through a die.



1) Distortion, under pressure, of portion of seal into clearance between mating metal parts. 2) Material, under pressure, which is forced through the opening of a die in order to obtain a desired cross sectional shape.


Failure Modes Analysis (FMA)

A formal, structured procedure used to analyze failure mode data from both current and prior processes to prevent occurrence of those failure modes in the future. 


Fatigue life (dynamic)

The number of deformations required to produce a specified state of fatigue breakdown in a test piece or product that is deformed under a prescribed set of conditions.



A determination that a process, design, procedure, or plan can be successfully accomplished in the required time frame. 


Field oxide

The region on an electrical device where the oxide serves the function of a dielectric.



Relatively inexpensive and inert material added to an elastomer to reinforce or modify properties.


Finish, Mold

The quality or appearance of the machined surface of a mold. 


Finish, Product

The quality or appearance of the surface of a rubber product. 


Finite Element Analysis

A technique for modeling a complex structure. When the mathematical model is subjected to known loads, the displacement of the structure may be determined. 



A surface split or crack.



The excess material protruding from the surface of a molded part at the mold junctions.



Surface imperfections that occur infrequently.


Flex cracking

A cracking condition of the surface of rubber articles such as tires and footwear, resulting from constantly repeated bending or flexing in service. 


Flexural Strength

Ability of a material to flex without permanent distortion or breaking.


Flow Marks

Surface imperfections due to improper flow and failure of stock to knit or blend with itself during the molding operation. 



Elastomer also known as fluoroelastomer.



A fluorinated silicone elastomer.


Foam stabilizer (latex)

A substance used in the preparation of latex foam to help stabilize the foam latex before gelation, drying and vulcanization.



A list of the materials and their amounts used in the preparation of a compound.



The number of periodic oscillations, vibrations or waves per unit of time.



Resistance to motion due to the contact of surfaces



A piece of equipment containing a resistance heated element and a temperature controller. It is used to maintain a region of constant temperature with a controlled atmosphere for the processing of semiconductor devices.


Furnace carbon black

Type of carbon black produced by the decomposition reaction of hydrocarbons when injected into a high-velocity stream of combustion gases under controlled conditions.


Gallium arsenide (GaAs)

A semiconductor material with the advantage of producing radiation resistant and higher speed devices than those produced using silicon as a substrate.


Glass transition point

Temperature at which a material loses its glass-like properties and becomes a semi-liquid. 



A deformable material clamped between essentially stationary faces to prevent the passage of matter through an opening or joint.



The openings in an injection or transfer mold that ensure even flow into the cavity.


Gate oxide

A thin, high-quality silicon dioxide film that causes the induction of charge, creating a channel between source and drain regions of an MOS transistor.


Gel, dry rubber

The portion of unvulcanized rubber insoluble in a chosen solvent.



A cavity into which a seal is installed.



Contact adhesive



The unidirectional orientation of rubber or filler particles occurring during processing (extrusion, milling, calen- dering) resulting in anisotropy of a vulcanized rubber. 


Green strength

(1) The resistance to deformation of a rubber stock in the uncured state. (2) Uncured adhesion between plied or spliced surfaces. 



The machined glandular recess into which the o-ring is fitted.



Compound a rubber compound containing only those ingredients necessary for vulcanization and small amounts of other ingredients for processing, coloring and improving the resistance to aging.



Ability to resist a distorting force.


Heat Aging

Loss of physical properties as a result of exposure to heat.


Heat buildup

The accumulation of thermal energy generated within a material as a result of hysteresis, evidenced by an increase in temperature.


Heat history

The accumulated amount of heat a rubber stock has been subjected to during processing operations, usually after incorporation of the vulcanizing agents. Incipient cure or scorch can take place if heat history has been excessive.


Heat Resistance

Rubber compounds capacity to undergo exposure to some specified level of elevated temperature and retain a high level of its original properties.


Hertz (Hz)

An international unit for frequency the number of cycles per second.



Polymer composed of differing monomers



The absence of a valence electron in a semiconductor crystal. Motion of a hole is equivalent to motion of a positive charge.




Having uniform composition or structure.



Repeated passage of raw rubber through a mill or other mixing device, under specified conditions, to ensure uniformity.



A polymer formed from a single monomer species.


Hybrid integrated circuit

A structure consisting of an assembly of one or more semiconductor devices and a thin film integrated circuit on a single substrate, usually ceramic.


Hydrogen bonding

Unusually strong dipole-dipole attractions that occur among molecules in which hydrogen is bonded to a highly electronegative atom.



Chemical decomposition of a substance involving the addition of water. 



Affinity toward water (water-loving); a hydrophilic surface is one that will allow water to spread across it in large puddles.



Aversion to water; a hydrophobic surface will not allow large puddles of water, but rather will form droplets. These surfaces are often termed "de-wetted."



Attracts and absorbs water.



The lagging of strain behind stress during deformation.



The inside diameter



Sobutene Isoprene Rubber (usually designated butyl rubber)


Impact resistance

Resistance to fracture under shock force. Impedance the total opposition offered by an electric circuit to the flow of an alternating current. It is the combination of resistance and reactance.



A material used to suppress a chemical reaction.


Injection Molding

Process where preheated rubber is injected under pressure through a closed mold cavity.


Internal mixe

Mixing unit for the production of rubber mixtures


Interlayer dielectric (ILD)

Films that insulate between the wafer surface and the first metal layer. They are typically some form of doped silicon dioxide, formed by reaction between a silicon source gas (silane or TEOS), an oxidizing gas (O2, N2) and dopant source gases.


Intermetal dielectric (IMD)

Films that insulate between two layers of conductive metal.



An atom that has either gained or lost electrons, making it a charged particle.


Ion implantation

Introduction of selected impurities (dopants) by means of high-voltage ion bombardment to achieve desired electronic properties in defined areas.


Ionic bonding

The electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ionsâ€"characterized by electron transfer.



A polymeric molecular structure containing a sequence of regularly spaced asymmetric atoms arranged in like configuration in the polymer chain.



Having the same properties in all directions.



An organic compound containing the carbonyl group -C=O. 


Kinetic friction

The minimum force required to maintain a body in motion over a surface.


Knit mark

Where raw stock did not unite into a homogeneous mass during the vulcanization. This is also called poor knitting. See Flow marks  


Lap joint

A joint made by overlapping the edge of one piece of material flat over the edge of another.



Colloidal aqueous dispersion of rubber.


Layer thickness of the rubber lining

Thickness of the rubber lining applied, usually nominal thickness +/- 10 %


Leakage Rate

The rate at which a fluid passes through a barrier.


Life Test

A laboratory test of the amount and duration of a products resistance to destructive forces.


Light-emitting diode (LED)

A semiconductor device in which the energy of minority carriers in combining with holes is converted to light.


Lip seal

A custom seal, static or dynamic, that seals on a flexible extension.



A mass of material or collection of articles of similar composition and characteristics.


Low Temperature Flexibility

The ability of an elastomeric product to be flexed at low temperatures without cracking.



The probability that a failed system can be made operable in a specified interval or downtime. 



A bar, serving as a core, around which rubber is extruded, forming a center hole. 



A glass plate covered with an array of patterns used in the photomasking process. Mask patterns may be formed in emulsion, chrome, iron oxide, silicon or a number of other opaque materials.



A homogeneous mixture of rubber and one or more materials in known proportions for use as a raw material in the preparation of the final compounds.



A breakdown or softening of raw rubber, or a mix, by the combined action of mechanical work (shear) and atmospheric oxygen, sometimes accelerated by the use of a peptizer and frequently at elevated temperatures.


Mating Surfaces

Points where different parts of an assembly meet.



Ability of an elastomeric material to return to its original shape after deformation.



1) the deposition of a thin film pattern of conductive material onto a substrate to provide interconnection of electronic components or to provide conductive contacts. 2) the layer of high-conductivity metal used to interconnect devices on a chip. Aluminum is commonly used.



Hardness measured with an instrument having a smaller indentor and applying a lower force than the standard instrument, permitting measurements on smaller specimens or thinner sheets that are not amenable to measurement by normal instruments.


Micron (µm)

A unit of length, one millionth of a meter.



A machine with two horizontal rolls revolving in opposite directions used for the mastication or mixing of rubber. 



a defect resulting from differing cross-section dimensions in adjacent mold halves.



A machine that incorporates and disperses compounding ingredients into rubber to form a mix or a compound through the action of mechanical work (shear).


Mixer, internal

A machine with a closed cavity in which a specially shaped rotor (or rotors) masticates the rubber or incorporates and disperses compounding materials into the rubber, or both.


Mixing mill

Driven pair of rollers for the production of rubber mixtures as well as for the plasticizing, homogenizing, preheating and rough-crushing of rubber



The ratio of stress to strain. In the physical testing of rubber, the load necessary to produce stated percentage of elongation, compression or shear. 


Modulus of Elasticity

 Ratio of the stress to the strain as measured on a rubber specimen.


Modulus, tensile

See tensile stress, at given elongation the preferred term.


Mold cavity

Hollow space in the mold designed to impart the desired form to the product being made.


Mold Register

Means used to align the parts of a mold. 


Mold marks

Surface imperfection transferred to a molded product from corresponding marks on a mold.


Mold release

See release agent (mold).


Molding, compression

The process of forming a material to a desired shape by flow induced by a force applied after a material is placed in the mold cavity.


Molding, injection

The process of forming a material by forcing it from an external heated chamber through a gate into the cavity of a closed mold by means of a pressure gradient that is independent of the mold clamping force.


Molding shrinkage

The difference in dimensions between a molded product and the mold cavity in which it was molded, both the mold and product being at normal room temperature when measured.


Molding, transfer

The process of forming a material by forcing it from an auxiliary heated chamber through a gate into the cavity of a closed mold by means of a pressure gradient that is dependent on the mold clamping force.



Smallest quantity of a substance that retains the properties of that substance.



A low molecular weight substance consisting of molecules capable of reacting with like or unlike molecules to form a polymer.


Mooney scorch

A measure of the incipient curing characteristics of a rubber compound using the Mooney viscometer. 


Mooney viscosity

A measure of the viscosity of a rubber or rubber compound determined in a Mooney shearing disc viscometer.


Natural rubber

Natural rubber or polymer of isoprene (NR), lower degree of cross-linking than hard natural rubber, high abrasion resistance, medium chemical resistance 



Acrylnitrile-butadiene rubber (usually designated nitrile rubber) 



 Acrylnitrile Chloroprene Rubber.



The localized reduction in cross section that may occur in a material under tensile stress.


Negative resist

Photoresist that remains in areas that were not protected from exposure by the opaque regions of a mask while being removed by the developer in regions that were protected. A negative image of the mask remains following the development process.



Trade name, the usual designation in the USA for chlororprene rubber 



The elastic resistance of unvulcanized rubber or rubber compounds to permanent deformation during processing. 



A three-dimensional structure formed by interchain or bonding of polymer molecules in combination with chain entanglements.



Progressive mode of seal failure that occurs when excessive pressure forces a portion of the o-ring into a clearance gap.



The radial clearance between rolls of a mill or calender on a line of centers.



Acrylnitrile Isoprene Rubber


Nitrile (Buna-N)

Copolymer of Butadiene and Acrylonitrile presently the industry’s most common elastomer.



The absence of a bloom. 



A defect in a finished rubber product caused by the rubber failing to completely fill the mold.



Pertaining to an element or compound which has no permanent dipole moment.


Nominal Size

Approximate size of an o-ring or seal in fractional dimensions.



Natural Rubber (latex), plantation rubber


Quality Planning Sign-Off

A review and commitment by the Product Quality Planning Team that all planned controls and processes are being followed. 



Process by which materials are entrapped within the folds of a given substance during manufacture.



The outside diameter of an o-ring.



Misalignment of mold halves causing out-of round O-ring cross section.


Oil Resistant

Ability of a vulcanized rubber to resist the swelling and deteriorating effects of various type of oils. 



A family of hydrocarbons with one carbon-carbon double bond.



A polymer consisting of only a few monomer units, such as a dimer, trimer, tetramer, etc., or their mixtures.


Open Cell

A cell not totally enclosed by its walls and hence interconnecting with other cells. 


Optimum Cure

State of vulcanization at which maximum desired property is attained. 


Oscillating Seal

In this application the inner or outer member if the gland moves in an arc around the axis of a shaft, most commonly used in faucets.



The release of adsorbed or occluded gases or water vapor, usually by heating.



The addition of another layer of lining over an in-place lining construction before 



A chemical reaction in which a compound loses electrons.


Ozone cracking

The surface cracks, checks, or crazing caused by exposure to an atmosphere containing ozone. 


Ozone Resistance

The ability of rubber to withstand exposure to ozone without cracking or breaking.



A collar or gasket used to seal mechanical devices to retain fluids under pressure or seal out foreign matter.


Paraffins saturated

Straight-chain hydrocarbons of the methane series.


Parting force

The parting force is the adhesive force related to the width of the test body



The final layer in a semiconductor device, forming a hermetic seal over the circuit elements. Plasma nitride and silicon dioxide are materials primarily used for passivation.



Most often as a final passivation layer.



A thin film of an optical-grade polymer that is stretched on a frame and secured to a mask or reticle. This solves the problem of airborne contamination forming on the mask. The pellicle keeps the dirt out of the focal plane.



A fully fluorinated fluoroelastomer. charges. Polar molecules ionize in solution and impart conductivity.


Permanent set

The permanent distortion of an elastomer after being strained.



The permeation rate divided by the pressure gradient of the gas or vapor. 



The permeation rate divided by the pressure differential of a gas or vapor between opposite faces of a solid body.


Permeation rate

The flow rate of a gas or vapor, under specified conditions, through a prescribed area of a solid body, divided by that area.



An insoluble compounding material used to impart color.



A small, pore-like defect or leak extending entirely through the lining thickness and appearing as a discontinuity; synonymous with "holiday".



High-energy gas made up of ionized particles.


Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition(PECVD)

A deposition system primarily used for deposition of silicon oxide and silicon nitride films. A plasma is used in addition to a heat source which allows for lower temperature processing (200°/400°C).


Plasma etching(PE)

The use of energized gases to chemically remove a surface.


Plasma nitride

A silicon-nitrogen film deposited using



(1) A measure of the resistance to shear of an unvulcanized elastomer; (2) A tendency of a material to remain deformed after reduction of the deforming stress to or below its yield stress. 



A compounding material used to enhance the deformability of a polymeric compound.


Pock marks

Uneven blister-like elevations, depressions, or pimpled appearance. 



Describing a molecule or radical that has, or is capable of developing, electrical 


Polychloroprene Chloroprene Rubber (CR)

Synthetic rubber, polymer of 2-chlorobutadiene, can be vulcanized to soft rubber, shows good chemical resistance as well as resistance to ageing, weathering and abrasion, and has medium resistance to oils 


Polyisoprene Isoprene Rubber (IR)

Synthetic version of natural rubber, is used instead of or mixed with natural rubber, can be processed to hard or soft rubber 



A substance consisting of macromolecules characterized by the repetition (neglecting ends, branch junctions and other minor irregularities) of one or more types of monomeric units.


Polymer network

A three-dimensional reticulate structure formed by chemical or physical linking of polymer chains.


Polysilicon (Poly)

Polycrystalline silicon, extensively used as conductor or gate material in a highly doped state.



The presence of numerous small holes or voids. 



Heat or radiation treatment, or both, to which a cured or partially cured thermosetting plastic or rubber composition is subjected to enhance the level of one or more properties.


Pot life

The period of time during which a reacting thermosetting plastic or rubber composition remains suitable for its intended use after mixing with a reaction-initiating agent.


Preliminary Bill of Material

An initial Bill of Material completed prior to design and print release. 


Preliminary Process Flow Chart

An early depiction of the anticipated manufacturing process for a product.


Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA)

An analytical technique used by a manufacturing responsible engineer/ team as a means to assure that, to the extent possible, potential failure modes and their associated causes/mechanisms have been considered and addressed. 


Product Assurance Plan

A part of the Product Quality Plan. It is a prevention-oriented management tool that addresses product design, process design, and when applicable software design.


Production Trial Run

Product made using all production tools, processes, equipment, environment, facility; and cycle time. 



The first coat of an adhesive system applied over a prepared surface for adhesion of rubber.



A physical adsorption process in which there are van der Waals forces of interaction between gas or liquid molecules and a solid surface.


Phosphosilicate glass(PSG)

A material commonly used for dielectrics before metalization, also for passivation. These films are composed of phosphorous-doped silicon dioxide.



The light-sensitive organic polymer film spun onto wafers and exposed using high-intensity light through a mask. The exposed photoresist is dissolved with developers, leaving a pattern of photoresist which allows etching to take place in some areas while preventing it in others.



Vapor deposition (PVD) the layering of a vapor, usually by means of evaporation or sputtering.



 The relative ease with which raw or compounded rubber can be handled in rubber machinery.


Processing aid

A compounding material that improves the processability of a polymeric compound.



A concept of uniformity based on the magnitude of the random errors. The smaller the random errors, the higher the precision.


Primary accelerator

The principal, highest concentration accelerator used in a vulcanizing system.


Radial Seal

O-ring or seal having compression applied to its outside diameter (O.D.) and inside diameter (I.D.).


Radial Squeeze

Compression on an O-ring outside diameter (O.D.) and inside diameter (I.D.).



Atoms or polyatomic molecules with at least one unpaired electron.


RCA Clean

A multi-step wet chemical process to clean wafers before oxidation; named after RCA, the company that invented the procedure.


Reactive ion etching (RIE)

An etching process that combines plasma and ion beam removal of the surface layer. The etchant gas enters the reaction chamber and is ionized. The individual molecules accelerate to the wafer surface. At the surface, the top layer removal is achieved by the physical and chemical removal of the material.



Rebound is a measure of the resilience, usually as the percent- age of vertical return of a body which has fallen and bounced.


Rebound resilience

The rebound resilience R is the ratio of the energy recovered to the energy expended 


Rebound test

Method of deter - mining the resilient properties of vulcanized rubber, by measuring rebound of a steel ball or pendulum falling from a definite height onto a rubber sample. 



A formula, mixing procedure and any other instructions needed for the preparation of a product.


Reciprocating Seal

 Dynamic seal used to seal piston or seals.



The degree to which a rubber product returns to its normal dimensions after being distorted.



The act of increasing the mechanical performance capability of a rubber by the incorporation of materials that do not participate significantly in the vulcanization process.


Release agent (mold)

A substance applied to the inside surfaces of a mold or added to a material to be molded, to facilitate removal of the product from the mold.



 The probability that an item will continue to function at customer expectation levels at a measurement point, under specified environmental and duty cycle conditions. 


Reliability Apportionment

See Apportionment. 



The variation in the average of measurements made by different operators using the same gage when measuring identical characteristics of the same parts. 



The property of a material that enables it to return to its original size and shape after removal of the stress which causes the deformation. 


Resilience, impact

The ratio of output to input mechanical energy in a rapid deformation and recovery cycle of a rubber specimen.


Resistivity, volume

The ratio of the electric potential gradient to the current density when the gradient is parallel to the current in the material.



A material used to reduce the tendency of a rubber compound to vulcanize prematurely.



A reproduction of the pattern to be imaged on the wafer (or mask) by a step-and-repeat process. The actual size of the pattern on the reticle is usually several times the final size of the pattern on the wafer.


Reversion (vulcanization)

Deterioration of vulcanizate properties that may occur when vulcanization time is extended beyond the optimum.  A similar change in properties after air aging at elevated temperatures. Natural rubber, butyl, polysulfides and epichlorobydrin polymers exhibit this effect (extreme reversion may result in tackiness). Most other polymers will harden and suffer loss of elongation on hot air aging.



Rubber Manufactures AssociationRCA, the company that invented the procedure.



Root Mean Square - The measure of surface roughness, obtained as the square root of the sum of the squares of micro-inch deviation from true flat.



Root Mean Square - The measure of surface roughness, obtained as the square root of the sum of the squares of micro-inch deviation from true flat.



High performance extruder with wide extrusion head and two-roller calendar


Rotary Seal

Seals for rotating shafts, with the turning shaft protruding through the I.D. of the o-ring.



Rotory press. 



A material that exhibits elastic properties that allow recovery from large deformations quickly and forcibly. A tough, waterproof substance obtained through polyme- ric synthesis or in natural form from the sap of various species of plants or trees.


Rubber hardness degree, international (IRHD)

A measure of hardness, the magnitude of which is derived from the depth of penetration of a specified indentor into a specimen under specified conditions. The scale is so chosen that zero would represent a material showing no measurable resistance to indentation, and 100 would represent a material showing no measurable indentation.


Rubber Latex

Colloidal aqueous emulsion of an elastomer.


Rubber Natural

A natural product from the juices of tropical plants


Rubber sheets

Calendered Several plyers of thin rubber foils of the same or different qualities applied to one rubber sheet


Rubber sheets - extruded

Continuous extrusion of rubber sheets or hoses in one layer


Rubber sheets – precured

Rubber sheets, partially or completely cured in an autoclave prior application


Rubber Synthetic

Man made elastomers such as Nitrile. 



The secondary feed channel for transferring material under pressure from the inner end of the sprue to the cavity gate.



Society of Automotive Engineers.



Styrene Butadiene Rubber


Scanning electron microscope (SEM)

Microscope used to magnify images as much as 50,000 times by means of scanning with an electron beam. The impinging electrons cause electrons on the surface to be ejected. The ejected electrons are collected and translated into a picture of the surface.


Scarf joint

A connection made with two ends cut at an angle and overlapping.



Premature vulcanization of a rubber compound, generally due to excessive heat history. Also see Mooney Scorch; 


Scorch, Mooney

The time to incipient cure of a compound when tested in the Mooney shearing disk viscometer under specific conditions.



Premature curing of rubber during storage or processing, usually caused by excess heat.



Any material or device that prevents or controls the passage of matter across the separable members of a mechanical assembly.


Seal, 0-ring

A product of precise dimensions molded in one piece to the configuration of a torus with circular cross section, suitable for use in a machined groove for static or dynamic service.


Secondary accelerator

Accelerator used in smaller concentrations, compared to the primary accelerator, to achieve a faster rate of vulcanization.



A material whose electrical resistivity is intermediate between that of conductors and insulators, in which conduction takes place by means of holes and electrons.



Strain remaining after complete release of the force producing the deformation.



Rotating or reciprocating component that operates within a cylinder or housing.


Shelf Aging

The potential degradation of seal performance capabilities due to exposure of o-ring elastomers to stressful environmental factors during storage



Length of time a molded compound can be stored without suffering significant loss of physical properties.


Shock load

The sudden application of an external force.


Shore A Hardness

An indentation method of rating the hardness of rubber using a Shore Durometer with the A scale from 0 to 100. 



Contraction of molded rubber upon cooling. 



A compound of silicon with a refractory metal. Common silicide semiconductor films (used as interconnects) include titanium, tungsten, tantalum and molybdenum.


Silicon dioxide (SiO2)

A non-conducting layer that can be thermally grown or deposited on silicon wafers. Thermal silicon dioxide is commonly grown using either oxygen or water vapor at temperatures above 900°C.


Silicon nitride (Si3N4)

A nonconductive layer chemically deposited on wafers at temperatures between 600° and 900°C.



Any of a group of semi-inorganic polymers based on the structural unit R2SiO, where R is an organic group, characterized by wide-range thermal stability, high lubricity, extreme water repellence, and physiological inertness and used in adhesives, lubricants, protective coatings, paints, electrical insulation, synthetic rubber, and prosthetic replacements for body parts.


Silicone rubber

Poly dimethyl siloxane elastomer.


Simultaneous Engineering

A way of simultaneously designing products, and the processes for manufacturing those products, through the use of cross functional teams to assure manufacturability and to reduce cycle time. 



The practice of mimicking some or all of the behavior of one system with a different, dissimilar system. 



A relatively dense layer at the surface of a cellular material. 


Smoke sheets

Plantation natural rubber sheets that, after passing through a mill that puts the conventional ribbing design on them, are washed and hung on racks in a smoke house where they undergo a combined smoking and drying process. 


Special Characteristics

Product and process characteristics designated by the customer including govern- mental regulatory and safety; and/or selected by the supplier through knowledge of the product and process. 


Specific gravity

The ratio of the mass of a unit volume of a material to that of the same volume of water at a specified temperature. 



 A joint or junction made by lapping or butting edges, straight or on a bias, and held together through vulcanization or mechanical means. 



(1) The primary feed channel that runs from the outer face of an injection or transfer mold to mold gate in a single cavity mold or to runners in a multiple cavity mold; (2) The piece of material formed or partially cured in the primary feed channel. 


Sprue mark

A mark, usually elevated, left on the surface of an injection or transfer molded part, after removal of the sprue. 



Cross section diametrical compression of O-ring between bottom surface of the groove and surface of other mating metal part in the gland assembly. 


Standard clean one

A mixture of ammonium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide and UPDI. The first step in the RCA Cleaning process, which is designed to remove organic material.


Standard clean two

A mixture of hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide and UPDI. The second step in the RCA Cleaning process, which is designed to remove metals and other inorganic material.


State of cure

The cure condition of a vulcanizate relative to that at which optimum physical properties are obtained. 


Static seal

A seal in which the sealing surfaces do not move relative to each other.


Steam oxide

Thermal silicon dioxide grown by bubbling a gas (usually oxygen or nitrogen) through water at 100°C.



A machine which steps a reticle directly onto the wafer. A reticle can be produced at lower defect level and with tighter dimensional control than an entire mask, resulting in wafer images having fewer defects. Alignment of reticle to wafer is accomplished by reflecting a laser beam through a special reticle pattern (alignment target) and off a corresponding pattern on the wafer.



The increase in static friction resulting from prolonged seal compression.



See compound.


Storage life, shelf

The period of time after production during which a material or product that is stored under specified conditions retains its intended performance capabilities.



The unit change, due to force, in the size or shape of a body referred to its original size or shape.



Force per unit of original cross sectional area required to stretch a specimen to a stated elongation. 


Stress relaxation

The decrease in stress after a given time of constant strain. 



Removal process; usually refers to photoresist.



A major part of a system which itself has the characteristics of a system, usually consisting of several components. 



A component of many equipment systems on which the wafer is 



Increased seal volume caused by exposure to adverse operating conditions, such as exposure to oils, fluids, heat and the like



The increase in volume of a specimen immersed in a liquid or exposed to a vapor.



A combination of several components or pieces of equipment integrated to perform a specific function.



The ability to adhere to itself; a sticky or adhesive quality.



The material to be sputtered during the sputtering process.


Team Feasibility Commitment

A commitment by the Product Quality Planning Team that the design can be manufactured, assembled, tested, packaged, and shipped in sufficient quantity at an acceptable cost, and on schedule.



Mechanical rupture initiated and propagated at a site of high stress concentration caused by a cut, defect or localized deformation.


Tear Resistance

Resistance to the growth of a nick or cut in a rubber specimen when tension is applied.


Tear strength

The maximum force required to tear a specified specimen, the force acting substantially parallel to the major axis of the test specimen. 


Temperature Range

Lowest temperature at which rubber remains flexible and highest temperature at which it will function. 


Tensile Strength

Force in pounds per square inch (psi) required to break the rubber specimen.


Tensile Stress

 The applied force per unit of original cross sectional area of a specimen. 


Tensile Stress at Given Elongation

The tensile stress required to stretch a uniform section of a specimen to a given elongation. 


Tension fatigue

Fracture, through crack growth, of a component or test specimen subjected to a repeated tensile deformation.


Tension Set

Increase in the length of an elastometric specimen following initial stretching and release.



A polymer formed from three monomer species.


Thermal carbon black

Type of carbon black produced under controlled conditions by the thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon gases in the absence of air or flames.


Thermal diffusion

A process by which dopant atoms diffuse into the wafer surface by heating the wafer in the range of 1,000°C and exposing it to vapors containing the desired dopant.


Thermal degradation

Irreversible and undesirable change in the properties of a material due to exposure to heat.


Thermal Expansion

Linear or volumetric expansion caused by temperature increase.


Thermoplastic elastomer(TPE)

A diverse family of rubberlike materials that, unlike conventional vulcanized rubbers, can be processed and recycled like thermoplastic materials.


Thermoplastic Rubber

Rubber that does not require chemical vulcanization and will repeatedly soften when heated and stiffen when cooled; and which will exhibit only slight loss of its original charac- teristics. 



Materials that undergo a chemical cross linking of molecules when processed, heated and molded, and therefore can not be reshaped.


Thermosetting Rubber

Chemically vulcanized rubber that cannot be re-melted or remolded without destroying its original characteristics.


Timing Plan

A plan that lists tasks, assignments, events, and timing required to provide a product that meets customer needs and expectations. 



Alternative name for a mold



The characteristic of a surface referring to its degree of flatness and smoothness.



A turning or twisting force generally associated with the rotation of the shaft.


Torr pressure unit

International standard unit replacing the English measure, millimeters of mercury (mm-Hg).


Transfer Molding

Method of molding thermosetting materials. The elastomeric compound is placed in a transfer chamber which is part of the mold, heated, then squeezed down through a sprue, a runner, and agate leading into a closed mold cavity.


TR 10

A test method for approximating the low-temperature capabilities of an elastomer.


Transition, first order

A reversible change in phase of a material; in the case of polymers, usually crystallization or melting.



A semiconductor device that uses a stream of charge carriers to produce active electronic effects. The name originated from the electrical characteristic of transfer resistance.



The process Involving removal of mold flash. 


Ultimate Elongation

The % of specimen stretching at the point of breaking.


Ultrapure deionized water (UPDI)

A highly purified water in which all charged species of ionizable organic and inorganic salts have been removed.


Ultraviolet (UV)

Electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength 4â€" 400 nanometers.



A condition where rubber has not been cured enough, exhibiting poor physical properties.


UV stabilizer

A compounding material that, through its ability to absorb ultraviolet radiation and render it harmless, retards the deterioration caused by sunlight and other UV light sources.



Evaporation a deposition technique whereby the deposited gas results from an evaporation process.


Value Engineering (Value Analy- sis)

A planned, clean sheet approach to problem solving, focusing on specific product design and process characteristics. Where value analysis is employed to improve value after production has begun, value engineering is employed to maximize value prior to expend- itures of facilities and tooling money. 


Van der Waals

Force an attractive force between two atoms due to a fluctuating dipole moment in one molecule inducing a dipole moment in the other molecule which then interact.


Vapor pressure

The pressure of the vapor in equilibrium with its liquid or solid phase.


Virtual leak

An apparent leak in a vacuum system that is often traceable to some internal release of occluded and/or sorbed gases.



A combination of viscous and elastic properties in a material with the relative contribution of each being dependent on time, temperature, stress and strain rate. Viscosity the resistance of a material to flow under stress.



The resistance of a material to flow under stress. 


Viscosity, Mooney

A measure of the viscosity of a rubber or rubber compound determined in a Mooney shearing disk viscometer.


Voice of the Customer

Customer feedback both positive and negative including likes, dislikes, problems and suggestions. 


Voice of the Process

Statistical data that is feedback to the people in the process to make decisions about the process stability and/or capability as a tool for continual improvement. 



The absence of material or an area devoid of materials where not intended. 


Void, cellular material

A cavity unintentionally formed in a cellular material and substantially larger than the characteristic individual cells.



Also known as vaporization, the conversion of a chemical substance from a liquid or solid state to a gaseous or vapor state.



A unit of electromotive force or difference in electric potential.


Volume swell

The increase in dimension caused by the absorption of a fluid.



The product of vulcanization, a cross-linked rubber.



Heat induced process whereby the long chains of the rubber molecules become crossed linked by vulcanizing agent to form three dimensional elastic structures. This reaction turns weak materials into strong one


Vulcanizing agent

Compounding material that produces cross-linking in rubber.


Vulcanizing system

The combination of a vulcanizing agent and, as required, accelerators, activators and retarders used to produce the desired vulcanization characteristics or vulcanizate characteristics.


Wafer flat

Flat area(s) ground onto the wafer’s edges to indicate the crystal orientation of the wafer structure and the dopant type.



The reduction in viscosity of a rubber or rubber mix, by mechanical work and heat, to render it suitable for further processing.


Water Absorption

The increase in weight and volume after immersion in water. 


Water resistance

The ability to withstand swelling by water for a specified time and temperature. 



The length of the wave to complete one cycle.



The tendency of some o-ring seals to surface crack upon exposure to atmospheres containing ozone another pollutants.



Completeness of contact between particles dispersed in a medium, such as carbon black rubber.



Transmission of a gas or liquid, due to a pressure differential or capillary action, along fibers incorporated in a rubber product.



An o-ring cut at a 90 degree angle to the mold parting line. The cross sectional diameter of an o-ring.


Wiper ring

A device designed to keep out foreign material.


Yield point

That point on the stress-strain curve, short of ultimate failure, where the rate of stress with respect to strain goes through a zero value and may become negative.


Yield strain

The level of strain at the yield point.


Yield stress

The level of stress at the yield point.


Young's modulus

The ratio of normal stress to corresponding stress or compressive stresses below the proportional limit of the material.


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Did you know that:

The rubber tree originated in the Amazon jungle. Currently, it grows on plantations in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the west coast of Africa.


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